Sunday, February 11, 2018

1498, The "Index of Prohibited Books"


His books were banned and put on
the "Index of Prohibited Books"      

In any case Machiavelli presented  
himself at various times as someone
reminding Italians of the old virtues
  of the Greeks.                                     

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli
                [he was a diplomat, historian, philosopher, politician,
and a writer of the Renaissance period,
                                        [a very famous man (Florence-Italian).

In 1498 he became the secretary of the Ten in the Florentine Republic,
                                                    [with responsibilities in diplomatic affairs,
and his most renowned work "The Prince"
              [was a book responsible for countless massacres and a sea of tears ....

The book itself gained notoriety when readers
                                                       [claimed that the author was teaching evil,
and providing evil recommendations to tyrants to maintain their power,
                                 [a book of evil that causes social and political upheaval.

On the other hand, many commentators, such as Rousseau*
                    [and Diderot*, have argued that Machiavelli was actually a republican,
"The Prince", was an inspiration for Enlightenment,
                                                [and it is wrong to be described as an anti-republican.

The Prince, as well as all Machiavelli's books were banned
                                                          [and put on the "Index of Prohibited Books".
The Catholic Church believed that Machiavelli promoted
                        [anti-Christian beliefs....but till now every eye in this book looks.


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* ''IT COULD BE OTHERWISE in verse''
Texts and Narration: Odysseus Heavilayias - ROTTERDAM //
Language adjustments and text adaptation: Kellene G Safis -CHICAGO//
Digital adaptation and text editing: Cathy Rapakoulia Mataraga - PIRAEUS
______________________________________________________________


*Machiavelli was born in a tumultuous era in which popes waged acquisitive wars against Italian city-states, and people and cities often fell from power as France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, and Switzerland battled for regional influence and control. Political-military alliances continually changed, featuring condottieri (mercenary leaders), who changed sides without warning, and the rise and fall of many short-lived governments.
Commentators such as Leo Strauss have gone so far as to name Machiavelli as the deliberate originator of modernity itself. Others have argued that Machiavelli is only a particularly interesting example of trends which were happening around him. In any case Machiavelli presented himself at various times as someone reminding Italians of the old virtues of the Romans and Greeks, and other times as someone promoting a completely new approach to politics.
That Machiavelli had a wide range of influences is in itself not controversial. 


"Machiavellianism" is a widely used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince. Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and killing innocents, as being normal and effective in politics. He even seemed to endorse it in some situations.


Statue at the Uffizi (art museum
located adjacent
to the Piazza della Signoria in the Historic Centre
of Florence in the region of Tuscany, Italy.



*Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Francophone Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment in France and across Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the overall development of modern political and educational thought.

*Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment.
Diderot's literary reputation during his lifetime rested primarily on his plays and his contributions to the Encyclopédie; many of his most important works, including Jacques the Fatalist, Rameau's Nephew, Paradox of the Actor, and D'Alembert's Dream, were published only after his death.




 ELEGHOS... at history 


Sunday, February 4, 2018

1497, Objects that might tempt one to sin



    In English, the burning of objects,
                             [condemned by authorities as occasions of sin,
is also described with the phrase a bonfire of the vanities,
             [a real problem for the foreigners, none of us would win      
in this very difficult struggle
                            [with the English language, woe to the stranger                                
believe it or not, it's like finding a needle in a haystack.... danger....

I, the foreigner, when I heard it for the first time,
                               [it was the title of a movie that starred Tom Hanks.
I never understood the real meaning of it,
      [although I asked teachers of English, professors, even think tanks.

Recently studying world history,
                                         [I found the same phrase and eventually learned
that the phrase refers to the bonfire of February 7th, 1497,
          [when supporters of the Girolamo Savonarola collected and burned,
objects that might tempt one to sin, including vanity items,
                                  [such as mirrors, cosmetics, playing cards and books
that were deemed to be immoral (Big Brother of the Middle Ages
                                [was present with a very eye which everywhere looks).

Girolamo Savonarola was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher
             [who denounced corruption of power, and exploitation of the poor.
Nobody ever remained alive after he raised such issues,
               [it is and was impossible, I would call it as delusions of grandeur.

Soon the Inquisition and civil authorities did condemn
                 [hanged, and burned Savonarola together with two other friars
in the main square of Florence, trying in vain to extinguish
                            [the beliefs of Savonarola's, it was called a real wildfire....

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* ''IT COULD BE OTHERWISE in verse''
Texts and Narration: Odysseus Heavilayias - ROTTERDAM //
Language adjustments and text adaptation: Kellene G Safis -CHICAGO//
Digital adaptation and text editing: Cathy Rapakoulia Mataraga - PIRAEUS

___________________________________________________________


*Girolamo Savonarola (21 September 1452 – 23 May 1498) was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence. 

*The Bonfire of the Vanities is a 1990 American satirical black comedy film directed by Brian De Palma. The screenplay, written by Michael Cristofer, was adapted from the best-selling novel of the same name by Tom Wolfe.
Stars Tom Hanks, Bruce Willis, Melanie Griffith, and Kim Cattrall.
The original music score was composed by Dave Grusin.






 ELEGHOS... at history